Saturday, 23 April 2016

Industrial layout and landscape planning & management

1. Examine the feature of adequate layout
2. Examine the relevance of proper layout and landscape planning and management to health

a.   Master Plan
The master plan also referred to as a “blueprint” can be referred to a planning/landscaping document which shows the current status of a community and also make recommendation on how it should look like in the future. The major components of a master plan include aerial photos, maps, diagrams, reports and statistical information that support the planner's vision.

In making a master plan of a community, the following key areas are to be given adequate attention:
·         Residential Area:  Residential areas show the part of the community that community that is or will be best suited for people to live in. These areas are usually free from pollution by industries and heavy noise. In planning for residential areas, there should be adequate interconnectivity between the residential area and other parts of the community. A good residential area should be an area where is liveable, good in appearance, good transportation system, convenient and safe for all residents.
·         Economic development: The economic development of every community is a very import factor in making a master plan. A master plan should be made in such a way that it boost economic development, promote existing businesses and attract other businesses to the community. A community should make adequate planning for markets, industrial layout, community/city malls, etc. and these areas must be supported by a functional transportation network.
·         Pre-planned community land usage: A master plan must take into cognisance how land in the community is to be used for different purposes by people in the community. This includes planning for parks and open space; residential areas; commercial, office and industrial uses; civic and institutional uses; and mixed-use areas. In making this plans, the master plan should also take cognisance of how the community will look like in the future as a result of growth and development and should be able to make adequate plans to accommodate such without distorting the ecosystem.
·         Effective transportation planning: The importance of effective transportation system in a community cannot be over-emphasized, in must be given adequate attention to make sure that transportation to every part of the community is effectively managed to enhance the movement of people and goods easily throughout the community.
·         Community facilities: Community facilities such as health care centres, community town halls, police stations, court, libraries, market, schools, etc. must be given adequate consideration. They should be located in areas that are easily accessible by every facet of the community. Most importantly, they must be provided with good transportation network.
·         Recreational Centre:  A master plan should contain areas en-marked for recreational centres such as parks, stadium, open field, community playground, etc. where people can go for recreational and leisure activities. 

b.   Features of a planned layout of a Recreational Ground
In planning a recreational ground, it is important that the types of activities envisaged by the planner to be carried out in the recreational ground must be given consideration to ensure that the recreational ground do not serve as a nuisance to the surrounding environment and also the surrounding environment should not also constitute a threat to the recreational ground. To ensure this, planning a recreational ground should include collecting and analysing information, to make sure the right facilities and venues for recreation are developed and that the right places are protected to meet our future recreation needs.

c.   Features of a Planned Burial Ground Layout
A burial ground layout of a community is an area set aide by the community here dead people are buried.  In planning a burial ground, there are major factors to be considered. The location of the burial should not be close to the community water source to guide against the outbreak of communicable diseases, especially for people who died from disease that can be transmitted from the dead to other people even after death such as Ebola, cholera, etc. A community burial ground should be effectively managed to avoid burials in existing graves. In order to do this, locations where people has been buried should be entered into a register called the burial register, and signage or grave stone should be placed against each of the already existing graves. 

d.   Features of a Planned Railway Line Layout
In planning the layout for a railway line several factors must be considered, but most important of the layout but the most important of them all is the terrain. It must be in gentle sloping areas, free from sharp bends and it must not be in marshy terrain. In planning fro railway lines, effort must be made to as much as possible avoid busy residential and industrial areas, to cut down obstructions and accidents. The railway line station must be located in areas where there are feeder roads to connect people from different part of the community with ease to the railway station.

e.   Features of Planned Water-bodies, Channels, Tanks, Rivers, etc.
All water bodies in a community must be protected in making developmental plant in a community. Coastal bays, lakes, rivers, and streams and groundwater must be protected to avoid pollution especially water meant for drinking. Planning for water bodies must include measures to measures to integrate the urban water cycle, including stormwater, groundwater and wastewater management and water supply, into urban design to minimise environmental degradation and improve aesthetic and recreational appeal. This can be done through mapping of source water areas around the drinking water source, identifying potential contaminant sources in the mapped protection area that may impact the drinking water supply, determining the magnitude of the threat posed by the potential sources of contamination and notifying the public of the results of the assessment.

f.     Features of a Planned Prohibited Areas Layout
The term “prohibited area” or “protected area” are used interchangeably to referred to area protected from indiscriminate usage by the public. This  include protected monuments declared as of national importance and extending to a distance of 100 meters in all direction. This is an area in which entrance is based on permission on a condition of necessity.

g.   Road types  and connection
Road types and connections are important for the effective management of traffic in a community to avoid gridlocks. As plans are developed for new roads, highways and bridges, or for reconstructing existing facilities, best management practices to help reduce the volume and concentration of erosion and sedimentation produced by the project should be incorporated into project design.

Well planned road and connection are made to prevent hazards to man and the environment. Poor planning can contribute to pollution problems. Wetlands and vegetated areas near water bodies can be damaged by construction, decreasing the water quality benefits that they normally provide. Areas susceptible to erosion, such as steep slopes or land with loose soil, can be disturbed, causing increased sedimentation flows into receiving streams. Environmental features must be effectively planned and incorporated into planning of road network. This should include analyzing environmental features, such as soils, climate, topography, drainage patterns, and existing land use.  This should take into cognisance of natural drainage systems and also take advantage clearing and grading can be minimized, areas susceptible to erosion and sedimentation should be avoided.  Natural vegetation and buffer areas can be preserved, and sensitive land and water areas that provide water quality benefits (e.g., wetlands, spawning waters, etc.)

h.   Wetland
An area of land saturated with water whether seasonally or permanently is referred to as a wetland. In making plans for wetlands in a community, attention must be paid to the general biodiversity data gather information on the status of a focus or target species such as threatened species. Collect information on the effects of human or natural disturbance, collect information that is indicative of the general ecosystem health or condition of a specific wetland ecosystem, determine the potential for sustainable use of biological resources in a particular wetland ecosystem. In general, wetlands play a number of roles in the environment, principally water purification, flood control, and shoreline stability. Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. The main wetland types include swamps, marshes, bogs, and fens; and sub-types include mangrove, etc.

i.     Waste dumpsites/disposal facilities
Every community, no matter the people living in it must generate waste consequently; a means of disposal is refuse is paramount. Waste dumpsite or disposal facilities are sites for the disposal of waste materials this may be in form of open dumping or by burial which is the oldest form of waste treatment. The most generally acceptable waste disposal facilities are sanitary landfills waste disposal method. A well planned landfills are often the most cost-efficient way to dispose of waste. While resource recovery and incineration both require extensive investments in infrastructure, and material recovery also requires extensive manpower to maintain, landfills have fewer fixed—or ongoing—costs, allowing them to compete favourably.

k. Low Tension (LT) and High Tension (HT) Electric Lines
Electric lines are used to transfer electricity from one point in the community to another. A low-tension (LT) line is an electric line supplying voltage of the range of 400 Volts for three-phase connection and 230 Volts for single-phase connection while a high tension line is used to supply voltage of 11 kilo-Volts or above. In planning a community, it is paramount that HT voltage line should be planned to avoid residential area while the low tension lines which supply voltage to the residential area should be planned in such a way that buildings are not erected directly under the low tension lines.

k. Public Parks
A public park is a referred to as areas marked out in the community for recreation and leisure activities. These areas are specially identified area free from hazards during leisure and recreational activities. They are usually located in areas free of traffic, industrial activities, and so on. Common features of public parks include, boat ramps and/or picnic facilities, playgrounds, gardens, hiking, running and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports field and courts, public restrooms depending on the budget and natural features available.

l. Housing, Industrial and Commercial Areas
Housing area also referred to as residential areas which are usually set aside in a community for housing purposes. This area is usually located in areas free from industrial and heavy commercial activities. In planning a good residential area, several factors must be considered which include good road network, access to facilities other necessary household.

An industrial area is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development. An industrial park can be thought of as a more "heavyweight" version of a business park or office park, which has offices and light industry, rather than heavy industry. Industrial parks are usually located on the edges of, or outside the main residential area of a city, and normally provided with good transportation access, including road and rail.

Commercial area is used for commercial activities. These activities include the buying and selling of goods and services in retail businesses, wholesale buying and selling, financial establishments, and wide variety of services that are broadly classified as "business". Even though these commercial activities use only a small amount of land, they are extremely important to a community’s economy.

Examine the relevance of proper layout and landscape planning and management of health
Landscaping are important in proper layout and landscape planning and management of health in the following ways:   

Landscape is an important education resource, providing inherent interest and allowing us to understand natural and cultural influences that have shaped the landscape we see today, as well as those that are likely to shape Devon’s future landscape. Landscapes link to many core areas of the curriculum, including earth science, geography, history, art, literature, map-making, environmental management and citizenship. They can therefore provide a focus for a project with multiple learning outcomes.

Spatial planning
Understanding landscape is essential for planning that is informed by local distinctiveness. Understanding of landscape underpins decisions about capacity for new development and for strategic spatial planning. Landscapes often span administrative boundaries and recognising this will help with collaborative spatial planning. Considering landscape during the planning process is important for meeting the requirements of the European Landscape Convention which requires strong forward looking planning actions to enhance, restore or create landscapes
Development management
New development changes landscape character; hence understanding the existing landscape character context for new development is essential for sustainable planning. Development can be used to create and enhance landscape character if it is appropriately planned; however, inappropriate development can weaken and erode landscape character. It is therefore essential that the planning of new development takes account of landscape character and seeks to strengthen and enhance it. For example, design guidance and development briefs based on landscape character can help us understand how buildings and other features associated with development can reflect and contribute to landscape character.
Climate change
Climate change will put pressure on the landscape. The goods and services that the landscape provides for people, such as food and water, will be affected by climate change. We can use the landscape, however, to help us to adapt to and combat the effects of climate change, for example by using moorlands to store carbon and wetlands to alleviate flooding.

There may also be pressure on the landscape from interventions that aim to tackle and adapt to climate change, such as introducing renewable technologies into the landscape. It is important to understand the landscape character and sensitivity of the landscape when planning for climate change
Land management
How a landscape is managed will impact upon landscape character. Managing a landscape to enhance key characteristics will have a positive landscape impact whilst the introduction of new and inappropriate elements may erode or damage the strength of landscape character. Appropriate landscape management can harmonise and guide changes brought about by social, environmental and economic processes such as agri-environment measures.
Biodiversity planning
Landscape-scale conservation tackles the issue of habitat loss, providing rich and diverse habitats for wildlife, and provides species with the flexibility to respond to pressures such as climate change. Conserving biodiversity across whole landscapes, rather than in individual sites, allows more habitats to be created where there is currently too much fragmentation to support the species dependent upon them.  This approach not only makes the landscape better for wildlife, but also for people: creating a landscape which people enjoy, and where the goods and services supplied by the landscape are sustained.

List and discuss the effect of improper layout and landscape planning and management on the environment and health.
The effect of improper layout and landscape planning could lead to several
environmental problems’ they are typically referring to damage to the physical environment, mostly caused by other people, and usually with harmful consequences for human welfare, either now or in the future. So common sense suggests that urban environmental problems are threats to present or future human well-being, resulting from human-induced damage to the physical environment, originating in or borne in urban areas.

This definition includes:
·         Localized environmental health problems such as inadequate household water and sanitation and indoor air pollution.
·         City-regional environmental problems such as ambient air pollution, inadequate waste management and pollution of rivers, lakes and coastal areas.
·         Extra-urban impacts of urban activities such as ecological disruption and resource depletion in a city’s hinterland, and emissions of acid precursors and greenhouse gases.
·         Regional or global environmental burdens that arise from activities outside a city’s boundaries, but which will affect people living in the city

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