Write note on the various hazards of occupational health



·         Physical hazards
·         Chemical hazard
·         Biological hazard on ionizing radiation

Physical hazard
Is a type occupational hazard that involves environmental  hazards that can cause harm with or without contact physical hazards includes ergonomic  hazards, radiation, heat and cold stress, vibration  hazard, and noise hazard. Engineering control is often used to mitigate physical hazards. Physical hazards are common sources of injures in many industries. They are perhaps unavoidable in certain industries, such as construction and mining but over time people have developed safety methods and produces to manage the risks of physical danger in the workplace employment of children may pose special problems an engineering workshop specializing in the fabrication of welding equipment (PPE) at work regulation 1992.


It is an employee’s duty to provide all equipment including clothing affording protection against the weather which is intended to be worn or held by a person at work which protects him against one or more risks to his health and safety. In a fabrication and welding workshop an employer would be required to provide face and eye protection, safety foot wear, overalls and other necessary PPE.

Falls
Falls are a common cause of occupational injuries and fatalities especially in construction, extraction, transportation, health care, and building cleaning and maintenance.

Machines
Machines are commonplace in many industries, including manufacturing, mining, construction and agriculture, and can be dangerous to workers. Many machines involve moving parts, sharp edges, hot surfaces and other hazards with the potential to crush, burn, cut, shear, stab, or otherwise strike or wound workers it used unsafely. Various safety measures exist to minimize these hazards including lockout tag out procedure for machine maintenance and roll over protection systems for vehicles.

According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, machine – related injuries were responsible for 64/170 cases that required day away from work in 2008. More than a quarter of these cases required more than 31 days spent away from work that same year, machines were the primary or secondary source of over 600 work related facilities. Machines are also often involved indirectly in workers deaths and injuries, such as in cases in which worker ships and falls possibly upon a sharp or pointed object. Power tools, used in many industries, present a number of hazards due to sharp moving parts, vibration, or noise. The transportation sector bears many risks for the health of commercial drivers, too, for example .from vibrations, or noise. The transportation sector bears many risks for the health of commercial drives too for example from vibration long periods of sitting, work stress and exhaustion. The problem occurs in Europe but in other parts of the world the situation is even worse. More drivers die in accidents due to security defects in vehicles. Long waiting time at borders because that drivers   are away from home and family much longer and even increase the risk of HIV infections

Confined spaces
Confined space also present a work   hazard. The national institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) definition “confirmed space’’ as having limited openings for entry and exit and unfavorable natural ventilation and which is not intended for continuous employee occupancy. Spaces of the kind can include storage tank, ship compartments, sewers, and pipelines confined spaces can pose a hazard not just to workers, but also to people who try to rescue them.

Noise
Noise also presents a fairly common work place hazard. Occupational hearing loss is the most common work related injury in the United States, with 22 million workers exposed to hazardous noise levels at work and an estimated $242 million spent annually on workers compensation for hearing loss disability. Noise is not the only source of occupational hearing loss, exposure to chemicals such as aromatic solvents and metals including lead, arsenic, and mercury can also cause hearing loss. Naturally noise is more of concern for certain occupations than others.

Temperature
Temperature extremes can also pose a danger to workers. Heat stress  can cause heat stroke, exhaustion cramps, and sweaty palm or dizziness, all of which increase the risk of other injuries .Workers near hot surfaces or steam  also are  at risk for burns. Dehydration may also result from overexposure to heat.  Cold stress also poses a danger to many workers. Overexposure to cold conditions or extreme cold can lead to hypotherma, frostbite, trench foot, or chilblains.

Electricity
Electricity poses danger to many workers. Electrical injuries can be divided into four types: Fatal electrocution, electric shock, burns and falls caused by contact with electric energy.

Chemical hazard
A chemical hazards is a type of occupational hazards caused by exposure to chemicals in the work place can cause acute or  long term detrimental health affects. There are many type of hazardous chemicals including neurotoxins immune agents, dermatologic agents, carcinogens, reproductive toxins, systemic toxins, asthmagens, pneumocononistic agents and sensitizers. These hazards can cause physical and or health risks depending on chemical, the hazards involved may be varied thus it is impotents to know and apply the PPE especially during the lab. Long term exposure to chemicals such as silicatust,  engine exhausts, tobacco smoke, and lead Camong other) have been shown to increase risk of heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure.

Types of hazards
1.      Liquid such as acids, solvents especially if they do not have a label
2.      Vapors and fumes
3.      Flammable materials
Chemical can change the physical state depending on temperature or pressure thus it is important to identify the health risk as these state can determine the potential write the chemical will take. For example,  gas state chemicals  can be absorbed by the skin.
Routes to exposure
-       Ingestion
-       Inhalation from fumes
-       Poising
-       Explosion.

Symbols
Hazards pictographs are a type of labeling system that averts individuals efficiently at a quick glance if there are hazardous chemicals present. The symbol help identify if the chemical that are going to be in use may potentially cause physical harm or hard to the environment. The symbols are distinctive as they are shaped with a diamond with red borders.

These signs can be divided into
1.      Explosive (exploding bomb)
2.      Flammable (flame
3.      Oxidizing (flame above a circle)
4.      Corrosive (corrosion of table and hand)
5.      Acute toxicity  (skull  and crossbones)
6.      Hazardous to environment (dead tress and fish)
7.      Health hazard/ hazardous to the ozone layer (exclamation mark).
8.      Serious health hazard (cross on a human s any changes. The silhouette).
9.      Gas under pressure (gas cylinder)  

These pictographs are also subdivided into class and categories for each class fictive the assignment for each chemical depends on their type and the severity

FIRST AID
In case of emergency, it is recommended to understand the first aid procedures in order to memorize any changes. The different types of chemicals will cause a variety of damage but the majority of sources recommended that it is best to rinse any contacted skin or eye with water for at least 120 -20 minutes currently, there is insufficient evidence of how long the rinsing should be done as the degree of impact will rainy for substances such as corrosive chemicals. However there recommend flush time is as follows.
1.      5 minutes- non to mil irritants
2.       15-20 minutes moderate to severe irritants and chemical that cause acute toxicity. 30 minutes- most corrosives
3.      60 minutes- strong alkalis  such as sodium, potassium or calcium hydroxide  immediately flush the affected area additionally  transporting the affected person to a  health care facility is important depending on the victims condition in the case that the victim need to be transported before the recommended  flush, then flushing should be done during the transportation process. It is to note that some chemical manufacturers may state the specific  type of cleansing  agents that is recommended.

Long term risk
Cancer
Cardiovascular disease
A 2017  SBU report found evidence that workplace exposure to Sihea dust,  engine exhaust or welding fumes is associated with heat disease.  Associations also exist for exposure to reserve, benoprenes, lead, dynamite, carbon disulphide, carbon monoxide  metal working fluids and  occupational  exposure to tobacco smoke.  Working with the electrolytic production of aluminum or the production of paper when the sulphate  produced, is associated with stroke. pulping process is used is associated with heart disease. An association was also found between heart disease and exposure to contain work environments, such as phenol acids containing TCDD (choxin) or asbestos  work place exposures to  silica dust or asbestos is also associated with pulmonary heart disease. There is evidence that workplace exposure to lead, carbon disulphide, phenexy acids containing TCDD, as well as working in an environment where aluminum is being electrolytically produced, is associated with stroke

Biological Hazards
Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primaly that of humans . this can include samples of a micro organism.  Virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can affects human heath it can also include substances harmful or other animals.  The term and its associated symbol are generally used as  a warning, so that those potentially exposed to the substances will know to take precautions. The biohazards symbol was developed in 1966 by Charles Baldwin, an environmental health engineer working for the dow chemical company on the containment products.  It is used in the tabeling of biological materials that carry a significant health risk including viral samples and used hypodermic needles

Classification
Bio – hazardous agents are classified for transportation by un number
-       Category A, un 2814- infectious substance in a from capable of causing permanents disability or life threatening humans or animals when exposure to it occurs.
-       Category  A, un 2900- infectious substances, affecting animals  (only): an infectious substances that is not in a form generally capable of causing permanent disability or life threatening or total disease in other wise healthy human and animals when exposure to themselves occurs
-       Category B. UN 3373- biological substance transported for diagnostic or investigative purposes  regulated medical waste, UN 3291- waste or reusable material derived from biomedical  research which includes the production and testing.

Levels of biohazards
The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categories various disease in levels of biohazard.  Level 7 being minimum  risk and level of being extreme risk  laboratories and other facilities are categorized as BSL (biosafety level) 1-4 or as pl through  P4 for short (pathogen or protection level).
-       Bio hazard level 1 – bacteria and  viruses including bacillus  subtills, canine hepatitis, Escherichia coli, varicella (chicken pox) as well as some cell cultures and non-infections bacteria. At this level precautions against  the biohazard us material in question are minimized most likely involving gloses and some sort of facial protection
-       Biohazard level 2- bacteria and viruses  that cause only mild disease to human, or are difficult to contract via  gerosol in a lab setting such as hepatitis  A,B, and C some influencing a strains lym disease,  salmonella, mumps meosils scrapia, dangue, fever, HIV  routine diagnostic work with clinical specimen can be done safely at Biosafetly  levcel 2 using  biosafety  level 2 practices and procedures research work concluding co-cultivation virus reputation studies or manipulations involving concentrated virus) can be done in a B.S.l – 2 (p2) facility using Bsl- practices and procedures.
-       Biohazards level 3: bacteria and viruses  that can cause severe to total disease in human but for which vaccines or other treatment exist, such as anthrax, west Nile virus, Nenezuelan  equine encephalitis, SARs virus,  MERS corona virus, hanta viruses, tuberculosis, typhus rift valley fever, rocky mountain sported fever, yellow fever and malaria.
-       Biohazards levels 4:  viruses that cause sever to total disease in humans, and for which vaccines other treatment are  not available, such as Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, marbury virus, Ebola virus, lassa fever virus, Crimean  congo hemorrhagic fever, and other hemorrhagic disease and rishibola. Varriola virus (small pox) is agents that is worked with a BSL-4 despite the existence of a vaccine, as it has been eradicate.  When dealing with biological hazards at this level the use of a positive pressire personal suit, with a segregated air supply is mandatory. The entrance are supply, is mandatory. The entrance and exit of level four biolab m will contain multiple showers, a vacuum room, an ultraviolet light room, autonomons detection system and other safety precautions  design to destroy all trances of the biohazard multiple air locks are employed and are electronically secured to prevent bot doors opening at the same time. All air and water service going to and  coming  from a biosafely level 4  (P4) lab will undergo similar decontamination procedures to eliminate the possibility of an accidental release  currently there are no bacteria classified at this level.  

Symbol                     
The biohazard symbol was developed by the dow chemical company in 1966 for their containment products. According to Charles Baldwin, an environmental health engineer who contributed to the development we wanted something that was memorable but meaningless, so we could educate people as to what it means in article he wrote for science in 1967, the symbol was presented as the new Standard for all biological hazards (biohazards) the article explained that over 40 symbols were drawn up by down artists, and all the symbols investigated had to meet a number of criteria.

Biophysical and biological effects of ionizing  radiation
Introduction
This  passage cover basic biophysical and biological effects of lionizing radiation in order to form a foundation for understanding the clinical aspects of radiation injury discussed this extended discussion of radiation injury discussed. This extended discussion  of radiation discussed. This extended discussion of radiation will be the most important causes of casualties after a nuclear explosion blast and thermal injuries however, radiation effects are considerably more complex and varied than are blast or thermal effects and are  subject to considerable misunderstanding. As a result, a more detailed discussion is warranted. Since data from human experience are limited, much of the information in this passage is based upon experimental information from animal studies.  A wide range of biological changes may follow the irradiation of an animal, raying from rapid death following high doses of penetrating whole body radiation to an essentially doses of penetrating whole body radiation to an essentially normal life for a variable period of time  until the development of delayed radiation effects, in a portion of the exposed population, following low dose exposures. The nature and severity of these changes will depend upon a great variety of biological and physical factors these are significant vanutions in response to irradistion associated with differences in species, age and other biological factors as well as the physical factors  of dose, close rat, or nature of the radiation. However, the biological responses to radiation are not usage. They fall within the range of standard tissue responses seen following other type of injury and occur as a result of similar biochemical and/or cell kinetic disturbances. As a result the wide range of effects which is possible can be organized into a predictable scheme, the details of which from the basic material.

Nuclear radiation
A wide variety  of lionizing radiation can interact with biological system, but there are only four types of radiation associated with atmospheric and underground unclear  denotions of biological synificance, in order of importance, they are ganma, neutron, data and alpha. The physical natures of these are discussed at layth. However, certain aspects of their mechanisms of interaction with living tissue are summarized here.

Gamma radiation
Gamma radiation, emitted during the nuclear detonation or later in fallouts, is so penetrating that a significant  part will pass through the human body without interaction. About 75% of the photons will interact with and lose energy to the atoms of the target tissue. This energy deposition may occur anywhere along a given photons path, and therefore, anywhere in the body it the gamma photon flues id high and the whole body is exposed, a fairly homogeneous deposition of energy will occur. This is in marked contact to the highly localized energy deposition patterns of alpha and delta radiation. Because of it penetrating ability the effects of gamma irradiation can be independents of the location of the source, (i.e, internal or external deposited within the body can result in total body irradiation, just as effectively as external sources, it the quantities deposited are large enough and despite the fact that the emitters may not be distributed uniformly throughout the body.

Neutron radiation
Since neutrons are uncharged particles and can react only with the nuclear of target atoms, the probability of interaction of target atoms, the probability of interaction of neutrons in the energy  range characteristic of the fission spectrum do not  ion during their path through the human body is roughly comparable to that of low energy gamma photons. Therefore neutron radiation can result in whole body irradiation. The energy deposition will not be uniform, and the side of the body which faces the detonation will absorb more than difference, although of great theoretical interest, is not of operation importance the major effect of this non uniform deposition of energy will be to cause a wide venation in the typical radiation doses causing radiation sickness rather than significant variation in the overall chemical effects. As noted above, neutrons since they are uncharged neutral particles, to not interact with the orbital electrons of atoms as do other for of radiation instead they interact with atomic nuclei directly. Because of them mass and energy, neutrons can cause severe disruption in atomic structure, typically causing a electrons this is much more common with the very height atoms, particularly hydrogen, since the mass of the photon making up the nucleus of common hydrogen is the major target atom in living tissue. When the nuclear of these latter are accelerated they are capable of causing dense lionization along their paths.

In biological material, elastic collisions of this type between neutrons and the nuclei of light weight atoms predominate. Due to their short range, the accelerated nuclei produced by these collisions will expend their energy along short tracks of high excitation and lonigation density in tissue about 70% to 85%  of the entire fast neutron energy is transferred to recoil hydrogen nuclei. The reminder of the neutron energy is dissipated in recoil nuclear of the other atoms noted above.

After the neutrons have lost most of their energy through these collisions, they will reach an equilibrium energy state in which they are referred to as thermal neutrons. Such relatively slow moving neutrons have a high probability of being captured by the nuclei  of a wide variety of elements such as sodium. The resulting materials are radioactive and generally decay rapidly. The resulting tissue irradiation is not a significant factors in radiation injury since the total energy released by the deccy  of these radioactive materials is extremely SM al compared to the total energy absorbed  from the neutrons by elastic collisions. However, the quantities can be measured and can be used to estimate neutron doses in limited number of casualties.

Biological hazards
Biological hazards also know as biohazards refers to biological substances that pose a threats to the biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of human this can include samples of micro organisms, virus  or toxin (from a biological source)  that can affect human health it can also include substances harmful to other animals. The term and its associated symbol are generally used as a warning, so that those potentially exposed to the substances will know to take precautions. The biohazard symbol was developed in 1966 by Charles Baldwin, an environmental health engineer working for the Dow chemical company on the containment products. It is used in the labeling of biological materials that carry  a significant health risk, including viral samples and used hypodermic needles in Unicode, the biohazards symbol is  “11+2623 (1)

Classification
Bio hazardous agent are classified for transportation by un number
-       Category A, un 2814- infections substances affecting huma: an infections substances in a form capable of causing permanent disability of life treating or fatal disease in other wise health human or animals when exposure to themselves occurs
-       Category B, un 3373- biological  substances transported for diagnostic  or investigative purposes
-       Regulated medical waste, un 3291 – waste or reusable material derived from medical treatment of an animal or human or from biomedical research which includes the production and testing

Levels of biohazard
-       Bio hazard level 1 – bacteria and  viruses including bacillus  subtills, canine hepatitis, Escherichia coli, varicella (chicken pox) as well as some cell cultures and non-infections bacteria. At this level precautions against  the biohazard us material in question are minimized most likely involving gloses and some sort of facial protection
-       Biohazard level 2- bacteria and viruses  that cause only mild disease to human, or are difficult to contract via  gerosol in a lab setting such as hepatitis  A,B, and C some influencing a strains lym disease,  salmonella, mumps meosils scrapia, dangue, fever, HIV  routine diagnostic work with clinical specimen can be done safely at Biosafety  level 2 using  biosafety  level 2 practices and procedures research work concluding co-cultivation virus reputation studies or manipulations involving concentrated virus) can be done in a B.S.l – 2 (p2) facility using Bsl- practices and procedures.
-       Biohazards level 3: bacteria and viruses  that can cause severe to total disease in human but for which vaccines or other treatment exist, such as anthrax, west Nile virus, Nenezuelan  equine encephalitis, SARs virus,  MERS corona virus, hanta viruses, tuberculosis, typhus rift vally fever, rocky mountain sported fever, yello fever and malaria.
-       Biohazards levels 4:  viruses that cause sever to total disease in humans, and for which vaccines other treatment are  not available, such as Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, marbury virus, Ebola virus, lassa fever virus, Crimean  congo hemorrhagic fever, and other hemorrhagic disease and rishibola. Varriola virus (small pox) is agents that is worked with a BSL-4 despite the existence of a vaccine, as it has been eradicate.  When dealing with biological hazards at this level the use of a positive pressire personal suit, with a segregated air supply is mandatory. The entrance are supply, is mandatory. The entrance and exit of level four biolab m will contain multiple showers, a vacuum room, an ultraviolet light room, autonomons detection system and other safety precautions  design to destroy all trances of the biohazard multiple air locks are employed and are electronically secured to prevent bot doors opening at the same time. All air and water service going to and  coming  from a biosafely level 4  (P4) lab will undergo similar decontamination procedures to eliminate the possibility of an accidental release  currently there are no bacteria classified at this level.  

Symbol                     
The biohazard symbol was developed by the dow chemical company in 1966 for their containment products. According to Charles Baldwin, an environmental health engineer who contributed to the development we wanted something that was memorable but meaningless, so we could educate people as  to what it means in article he wrote for scince in 1967, the symbol was presented  as the new Stanclard for all biological hazards (biohazards) the article explained that over 40 symbols were drawn up by  dow artists, and all the symbols investigated had to meet a number of criteria.
1.      Striking in form order draw immediate attention
2.      Unique and unambiguous, in order not to be confused with symbols used other purpose
3.      quickly recognizable and easily recalled
4.      symmetrical, in order to appear identical from all anfus  of approach.
5.      Acceptable to group of varying ethnic backgrounds

The chosen symbol scored the best on nationwide testing for memorability. The design was first specified in 39 Fe 23680 but was dropped in the succeeding  in amendment however, various us states adopted the specific control  for their state code.  There are four circle within the symbol, signifying the chain of  infection
1.      Agent – the type of micro organism, chat causes infection or hazardous condition
2.      Host- the organism in which  the micro organism originate. The cornier host might not show symptoms
3.      Transmission – the means of transmission mostly direct or indirect, some direct contact  and contaminated surface

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